ANTI MICROSOMAL ANTIBODIES

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Test Name
Antimicrosomal antibodies
Test Units
OD ratio
Normal range
  • Negative
  • < 35
     
  • Equivocal
  • 35 – 50
     
  • Positive
  • > 50
    Sample required
    2 ml serum
     
     
    INTRODUCTION
     
    Antithyroid microsomal antibody is a test to measure antithyroid microsomal antibody in the blood. Microsomes are found inside thyroid cells. The body produces antibodies to microsomes when there has been damage to thyroid cells. This is a special serologic test used to measure thyroid-microsomal antibody in the bloodstream. The anti-microsomal antibody or microsomal antibody test is used to diagnose conditions such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and other autoimmune disorders.
     
    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  
     
    Autoimmune thyroid disorders are characterized by the presence of antithyroid antibodies, specifically antithyroglobulin (ATG) and antithyroid peroxidase (microsomal antibodies or AMA).Microsomal antibodies (AMA) are produced in response to microsomes escaping from damaged cells surrounding the thyroid follicle in the thyroid gland. AMA is also known as TPO antibodies (thyroid peroxidase). Such autoantibodies are usually present in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Grave's disease and probably play a central role in the pathogenesis of that disease. However, they may also be increased in other autoimmune disorders.
     
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid) :
     
    It is an autoimmune disease with chronic inflammation of the gland. An autoimmune reaction to proteins in the thyroid is the underlying cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
     
     
     
    Grave's Disease (Diffuse toxic goiter) :
     
    It is an autoimmune thyroid disorder leading to overactivity of thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).
    The symptoms include :
     
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle weakness
    • Weight gain
    • Bulging eyes (exophthalmos)
    • Thickened skin over the shin area
    • Goiter (enlarged thyroid which may cause a bulge in the neck)
    Elevated levels are also seen in :
     
    • Type I diabetes
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Autoimmune collagen vascular diseases

    T echnology Used ELISA

     
      ADDITIONAL INFORMATION  
     
     

    This is useful to identify individuals at risk with family history of thyroid disorders. In conjunction with ATG, these antibody tests are used by many thyroidologists to confirm or rule out the involvement of autoimmune process in the "observed hyperthyroidism".

     
     
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