Type-1 diabetes, also known as insulin-independent diabetes or Juvenile diabetes is a chronic condition where the pancreas produces either little or no insulin at all. Insulin is needed in the body to allow sugar to enter the body cells for the purpose of energy production. Type-2 diabetes on the other hand is far more common form of diabetes, where the beta cells of the pancreas carry out insulin production as expected, but it is not used effectively by the body cells because they are resistant to its action. Type-2 diabetes involves most of the common risk that are experienced in type-1 diabetes, where there is a lack of insulin.
How insulin works:
Insulin is a body hormone that is responsible for the transportation of glucose into body cells. In the case of excess glucose in the blood insulin is secreted and sends a signal to the liver and body muscles so that excess glucose is stored as glycogen. Insulin is also responsible for stimulating adipose tissue so that glucose can be stored as fats, creating long term energy reserves. Insulin receptors are available throughout the body. For a healthy person, blood/glucose levels are quite stable. When fasting, glucose levels may range anywhere between 70 and 100 mg/dL.
Differences between Type 1 and 2:
There are two major differences between types 1 and 2 diabetes. Type 1 is an auto-immune condition where the body attacks and destroys cells (Known as beta cells) that are responsible for the production of insulin. Type 1 is responsible for between 5 – 10% of all cases. In this case, insulin replacement is carried out as a therapy, since insulin production has been disabled.
Type-2 diabetes, previously known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is experienced when the body cannot use insulin as effectively as it should any more, and slowly becomes resistant to its effect. It has a slow progress that comes with identifiable stages. The first signs show elevated levels of glucose and insulin. These conditions are known as hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia respectively. In the stages that follow, insulin levels fall down, while glucose levels are extensively elevated. With very few people being aware of these vital distinctions, it is important that therapy for the type 2 diabetes be tailored to the specific stage of the medical condition.