Diagnosis for bladder cancer is first done by screening tests. These tests include urinalysis, cystoscopy and urine cytology. The other tests done to diagnose bladder cancer include CT scan, pyelography, ultrasound scan and one scan.
As seen in any cancer staging is an important aspect since it helps determine the stage of the disease and the chances of recovery. Staging is done based imaging tests like ultrasound scan, CT scan and biopsy results.
The following stages are used to classify the spread of the cancer and spread according to the TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastasis) staging system:
- Stage 1: In this stage the cancer cells are present only on the inner lining of the bladder (This stage is also called as Stage Ta).
- Stage 2: In this stage the cancerous cells multiply and grow to the layer beyond the inner lining of the urinary bladder but not to the muscles of the urinary bladder.
- Stage 3: In this stage the cancer cells have proliferated to the muscles in the bladder wall but not to the fatty tissue surrounding the urinary bladder.
- Stage 4: In this stage the cancer cells have proliferated to the fatty tissue surrounding the urinary bladder along with the prostate gland, vagina, or uterus, but not to the lymph nodes or other organs.
- Stage 5: In this stage the Cancer cells have multiply to the lymph nodes, pelvic or abdominal wall, and/or other organs.
- Recurrent: In this stage the cancer has recurred and reappeared in the urinary bladder or in another nearby organ after having been treated