Ovarian Cyst is a condition where there is a development of small sacs filled with fluid in the ovaries of women. Cysts maybe harmless at most times, however, they may cause problems when they bleed, pain or rupture. This condition can be treated by surgically removing the cysts.
The ovary is a reproductive organ and hence plays a very important role in the life cycle of a woman. There are two ovaries normally present in the female human body. One ovary is located at either side of the uterus. The ovary is responsible for the production of the egg and the development of the menstrual cycle which occurs monthly. The menstrual cycle occurs every month and ends when the egg is not fertilized. When the egg is not fertilized the contents of the uterus are expelled and this is called as the menstrual period.
The most frequently and commonly occurring ovarian cysts are:
- Follicular Cyst: The follicular cyst is a simple cyst and normally produces no symptoms and disappears by itself within a few weeks. However, the rupture of this cyst can cause severe pain on the side of the ovary where the cyst is present. This cyst normally forms at the time of ovulation.
- Corpus luteum cyst: This is a type of a functional ovarian cyst. It occurs after the release of an egg from the follicle. The ruptured follicle is called the corpus luteum, in absence of a pregnancy the corpus luteum breaks down and recedes. However, it may get filled up with fluid and blood and remain on the ovary. This kind of cyst does show any symptoms.
- Hemorrhagic cyst: This is also a functional cyst which is seen when bleeding occurs within a cyst. This type of cyst causes abdominal pain on one side of the body.
- Dermoid cyst: This is also known as an abnormal cyst and is a type of benign tumour. It is also known as mature cystic teratoma and is known to affect younger women. These cysts are known to cause severe abdominal pain.
- Endometrioid cysts: this is a condition seen in conjunction with endometriosis. In this condition the presence of the endometrial tissue is seen in the ovaries. It is known to cause chronic pelvic pain which is commonly associated with menstruation. Women with the problem of endometriosis may have fertility problems.
- Polycystic appearing ovary: in this condition there is a presence of many small cysts. In this condition the size of the ovary is enlarged and is seen in healthy women as well as women with hormonal disorders. This condition is also a major cause of miscarriage and pregnancy related complications.